20The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. Second, they believed that life is a battle, a battle to the death. Would you like to support my ministry of encouraging mutuality and equality between men and women in the church and in marriage? : Hendrickson, 1991) (A PDF of this chapter is freely available here.) No less than 24 persons were saluted by name, plus household groups of Aristobulus and of Narcissus, plus the mother of Rufus and the sister of Nereus. You can see from his name that this man had connections with the family of Herod. . One ancient Greek manuscript and a number of ancient versions read the name “Julia.” Most editors have interpreted it as a man’s name, Junias. Greet my dear friend Persis, another woman who has worked very hard in the Lord. They are both by Thomas R. Edgar, a professor of New Testament at Capital Bible Seminary. A single name like this implies that the man was a slave, but as the tomb is rather ornate, it indicates that he was a Christian, and highly respected by the leaders in Rome. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and my dear friend Stachys. Evidently, they handled very important tasks within the church, according to the gifts they had. "Asia," as in the Revision, is the true reading. 14:22-25; 1 Cor. The couple is described in terms of their relationship with Paul (and other apostles) and their ministry. More about Prisca and Aquila here. Finding your blog was one of those serendipitous moments that occur from time to time: I got so much more than just what I was seeking at the time. There were thousands of names and initials scratched on the rocks, but high up on the side of it, above almost every other name, was scratched "George Washington." Hi Bill, Your comment has warmed my heart. 19. Apelles is a man whose faith in Christ had been tested in some way, and proven. Romans 16 begins with a recommendation which was written in order to introduce a woman by the name of Phoebe to the Christian community in Rome. You can tell by the way they act that is what they want. 21Timothy, my fellow worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my relatives. Furthermore, Paul ends his list with a call for mutual and reciprocal salutations among the Roman Christians. All the churches of Christ send greetings. Just as many hues and colors are blended together to create a beautiful design, so many types of service are needed to present and reveal the wonderful love of God! Contrary to Kroeger and Liefield, I do not think that “to originate” is the sense of authentein in 1 Timothy 2:12. The danger, as Paul outlines it, is that they create factions within a church -- that is, little dissident groups that gather about and emphasize one particular point of doctrine or teaching, to the exclusion of everything else. The people Paul greets are male and female, young and old, Jew and Gentile, slave and free. (Romans 16:7-10a NIV). He was behind the scenes politically, but was the close friend of the Emperor Claudius. None of the names mentioned from Ro 16:5-15 are otherwise known. But there are several important observations that should be made concerning Paul’s reference to these individuals in the conclusion of his letter. another house church, as with the group mentioned in v. 14. It is difficult to know for sure which Mary this is, since there were so many with this name who were followers of Jesus. In these early days, Christians did not meet in buildings like we have now. Until you see fit to remove us, Lord, keep us at the work. In Romans 16 Paul uses this term three times (see verses 7,11,21) and he names six people as his kinsmen. I have also heard the objection that authentein could not mean domineer since two activities are prohibited, and authentein is only not permitted in relation to men and not other women as well. There are no grounds for such a presumption. Take Romans 13. Keep away from them. It may be that Paul is critiquing a custom or concern in Corinth that was not a custom in other churches (1 Cor. Paul switched from the Greek for “men” and “women” in verses 8-10 to the singular “man” and “woman” in verses 11-15. I ask you to receive her in the Lord in a way worthy of the saints and to give her any help she may need from you, for she has been a great help to many people, including me. The Names of God. I would enjoy hearing your thoughts on that. The same verb occurs five times in the second half of 1 Cor. Most of the names in this chapter are members of the Roman church that Paul is sending greetings to. These prominent Christians had already penetrated society from top to bottom. And since most of the Christians were Jewish, they would have heard the scriptures read in synagogues that owned some scrolls. 5:6), Israel (Rom. And why does it matter? In those days, too many good citizens – good Christians! 1 Cor. (Also, Adam was literally “with” Eve; he might have been beside her throughout the conversation between the snake and Eve.). Tryphosa Romans 16:12, Greet those labourers in the Lord, Tryphaena and Tryphosa. Gaius opened his house to the entire Christian community, so here is Paul, sitting there with his friends. I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a servant of the church in Cenchrea, that you may receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints, and assist her in whatever business she has need of you; for indeed she has been a helper of many and of myself also. 1 Cor. Even many synagogues would not have had the complete Old Testament, but only some of the scrolls. All of Paul’s advice in 1 Timothy 2:8-15 is very specific. Marg has a BTh from the Australian College of Ministries and an MA in early Christian and Jewish studies from Macquarie University. But this passage is not a dry list of names. Women occupy a prominent place in these letters of the New Testament. There were both men and women named Olympis in the ancient world. Patrobas Romans 16:14 Later they became Christians, and Paul cherished them as friends he had known even before his own Christian days. I also see no reason for Edgar’s assertion that the word for “to teach” and “to domineer” intensify each other. All ancient writers who commented on Romans 16:7 understood the name to be feminine, from the early church Fathers until the 13 th century. 1 Cor. Now we have even more names. Chrysostom used the words correctly. Five families or houses are mentioned. Subject to permissions policy, all rights reserved. These words of Paul open up hidden vistas that bring the whole flavor and color of this first-century Christian life home to us. His comment about Chrysostom’s use of authent– words almost made me tear out my hair. So for my sake, I’ve compiled this list of people who Paul mentions in Romans 16:1-16 so I don’t have to keep going back to the passage to check how many people there are. It is incorrect to say that the smaller meetings were less formal. Say hello to the members of the household of Aristobulus. Note that in both halves of 1 Corinthians 11 the word “church” is used. This again takes us back to the earliest days of the gospel ministry when perhaps young Saul of Tarsus, coming to Jerusalem to sit at the feet of Gamaliel, the great Jewish teacher, had probably stayed in the home of Simon of Cyrene and his two sons, Alexander and Rufus. He is not mentioned elsewhere. Website © 2021 by Ray Stedman Ministries. You have to get to know your fellow-inmates -- there is no escaping them! One is, “Contextualized Interpretation of I Timothy 2:12: An Analysis,” and the other is, “I Timothy 2:12: An Analysis of Restrictive Interpretation.” I have been reading some of your articles on 1 Timothy, and I would appreciate your thoughts on Edgar’s papers. Greet those in the household of Narcissus who are in the Lord. He comments on the faith of a few of these people, on his relationships with a few of these people, and on some of their ministries. If no one can see a man or woman praying and prophesying then what does it matter how they wear their hair, or if their head is covered or uncovered? 16:3-5). 16Greet one another with a holy kiss. Paul spoke of him always in the highest terms; his beloved son in the faith, who had stayed with him so long and remained faithful to the end. Something will happen to open the eyes of people to the unscriptural position of these groups, and they will lose their following. The very last letter Paul wrote from his prison cell in Rome was to Timothy. Greet Mary, who bestowed much labour on us — Performed many good offices for the faithful, especially for the preachers of the gospel. For that I am very grateful. I appreciate the information and background, and you have helped me better understand these verses. 16:15). Series: From Guilt to Glory -- Experienced. Three women are listed in Romans 16:12. She is called by the apostle "a servant of the church in Cenchreae." all things” he has promised to those who are changed by the gospel message (Rom. It seems that the Corinthian church also met in a larger gathering for a communal meal. Evidently, the apostle said something to him, such as, "Tertius, you've written this whole thing and you must have writer's cramps by now. 17I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned. 2 That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also. Greet Apelles, tested and approved in Christ. You remember lots of things about your past together and things about their personality, but you still can’t recall their name. In any case, there is no reason to suppose that it actually belongs in both places, nor can it be a matter of great consequence which place is the best one for it. I’ve had a few busy days, but I’ll try and get to Edgar’s paper in a day or two. There are 24 names mentioned in Rome — 17 men and 7 women. Not only do they comprise 35% of the believers mentioned, (His palm had to be greased before a letter got through to the emperor.) In fact, he gives no examples of the verb in ancient papyri until later, and these very few examples are just allusions rather than examples. Later he sends greetings from eight who are with him in Corinth. This was a domestic setting. Greet Mary, who laboured hard for you. Genesis 3 tells us that Eve wrongly handed Adam a piece of forbidden fruit. Romans 16:6 "Greet Mary, who bestowed much labor on us." 6-16. Though “control” or “bully” or “act the tyrant” may be better. What a relief, not to be bothered with a church building program! Not only I but all the churches of the Gentiles are grateful to them. 14, he uses the “gathering together” verb. Hab 2:4: Rom 2:24: For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, as it is written. Romans 16:6 "Greet Mary, who bestowed much labor on us." 22. None of the names mentioned from Romans 16:5-15 are otherwise known. CEB. Have you noticed how many of the cults today are trying to go back to the Scriptures, arguing from them a groundwork for their faith? And many people have called God by different names in the Bible. Mary and the Women in Matthew’s Genealogy of Jesus, Don Carson and Tim Keller on “I Do Not Permit a Woman to Teach”. God bless you! Unless I’ve missed it, these chapters say nothing about teaching. I think that is a deadly philosophy. Hearing and seeing the amazing names of God helps us know who God is, and it gives us a deep sense of awe for our wonderful and great God and Father. She represented them in some labor, and whether it was material, physical, or spiritual, she was very faithful in it. They can read and write, and are part of this group in Corinth. If these activities are positive, why does Paul prohibit them? Would not that be a great inscription, "Tested and approved in Christ"?) Greet Ampliatus, whom I love in the Lord. 3. His home was in North Africa, and he evidently had little or no interest in the things of Christ until he was forced to carry the cross of Jesus. A shepherd who only feeds the male sheep in his flock? Cenchreae was the port of Corinth, located about nine miles east of the city. They could not teach or preach but they could help, and they did, right to the end. That is always a problem within the church when people think one particular thing is most important. Edgar doesn’t get it! I’ve heard a few complementarian scholars use the word “positive” in discussions when describing “to teach” and authentein, but I really don’t know what they mean. Olympas; this is thought to be the name of a man, rather than of a woman. 16:5, 8, 9). ), Rufus’ mother is the eighth woman listed in Romans 16:1-16. Incidentally, of the six times their names are mentioned, four times Priscilla's name is put first -- which indicates that she had the gift of teaching, rather than her husband. 2. (My own transl.). 1:1 and 1 Tim. Note that the verb that means “gather together/assemble” occurs twice in 1 Corinthians 14. But “reputation” (doxa) is a key concern in 1 Cor. One wonders at the number of them, considering that the writer had never been at Rome. Rather, it gives insight into the church in Rome and it reveals Paul’s esteem and regard for some of the believers there. . This is supported, I think, by the fact that Paul mentions his relative, Herodion, in connection with these servants. Which are in the Lord - This might intimate that some of this family were not Christians; those only of that family that were converted to the Lord being saluted. This is an interesting question because a study of "in Christ" will reveal to us the meaning and implications of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Our Father, we thank you for these names of men and women who long ago preceded us in the pilgrimage of life. another house church, as with the group mentioned in v. 14. It is not a picnic. But I must admit that I am wary considering this statement in the abstract of one of the papers: “The verse is not complicated, the argument of the passage seems clear, and the normal lexical meanings of the terms seem to fit well.”, The verse and the argument (whatever he thinks the argument is) is not clear, and the meaning of the Greek word authentein is debated by some. https://margmowczko.com/1-timothy-212-not-as-clear/, https://womeninthechurch.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Edgar%20analysis%20of%20restrictive%20interpretation.pdf. This inspiring video shows several of the most important Hebrew names of God. Men and women who were tested, tried, and approved, who stayed steadfast in the long martyrdom of life itself.  More about Phoebe here. This young man had lived up to his name, ... Several people by the name of Gaius are mentioned … You can picture them gathered in the home of Gaius, this gracious, genial, generous host of the city, mentioned in Paul's first letter to the Corinthians. Like Epaenetus, Ampliatus and Stachys (three men mentioned above), Paul refers to Persis, a woman, as a dear friend (“beloved”). We cannot be certain of all those details, but much is suggested by this. We pray that you will grant to us, Lord, similar faith that we too may share with you in a time of testing, a time of rebuke and pressure and persecution and trouble, and stand steadfast to the end, for your name's sake. So, here are the names for God in the Bible. The word for “church” also occurs in 1 Cor. 6. Undoubtedly the prayers of Andronicus and Junias affected the apostle. Here in Romans 16 are six members of Paul's family, kinsmen who are now Christians. They became fast friends, as well as relatives, and Paul speaks highly of them. There are many names for God in the Bible. Paul warns about this. The couple hosted and led a house church in Rome which is also greeted. Junia Romans 16:7, Greet Andronicus and Junia, my fellow Jews who have been in prison with me. Evidently, a Christian church had grown up there, and Phoebe was a deacon in it. Paul wanted to foster unity among the believers in Rome and between the different house churches. 3:28). NRSV, Rufus may be a son of Simon of Cyrene, the man who was forced to carry Jesus’s cross. Names Of God Video – Very Inspiring! When some group like this appears, many of us tend to want to rush in and excommunicate them, read them out from the pulpit, or violently attack them. You cannot read Chapter 16 of Romans without being impressed by the number of women Paul mentions — many more than in any other literature of that day. I’m still going to be in and out a bit the next week or so, but let’s move ahead a bit in our discussion of gender. Now they are in Rome, having traveled from Corinth and Ephesus. (But I don’t agree with Chrysostom’s interpretation of Eve’s actions. This is the best link I could find. His wife, Domatilla, also a Christian, was banished by the emperor. That is a sexist term. Romans 16 -Those Listed There… Page 1 Romans 16 -Those listed there… General listing: 1. One wonders at the number of them, considering that the writer had never been at Rome. There is no better place to make friends than in jail. I apologize again for asking so many questions, and I thank you for your insight. That’s an interesting and valid point about Genesis 3:17, Taylor. But I have always been fascinated by this man Apelles, whom Paul says has been "tested and approved in Christ." 7Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives who have been in prison with me. RayStedman.org/permissions. Thus he has been approved in Christ. By Ernie and Mary Kroeger. Third, they believed that there is need for rest and leisure at times, but only to restore them to go back into the battle. Romans 16 is an important passage; about one third of the people mentioned in this chapter are women. Sosipater may be the man from Beroea, mentioned in Acts 20 as "Sopater." Paul goes on to mention two other friends, Verses 5-6: Greet my dear friend Epaenetus, who was the first convert to Christ in the province of Asia. Though we do not know the details, it is evident that this man became a Christian and there is a hint in the book of Acts that he was present on the day of Pentecost. In verse 2, she is referred to as a helper of many, and of Paul. Philippiansologus means "a lover of the word," and this was probably a nickname given to him, just as Barnabas was called "the son of consolation," even though that was not his name. Julia; probably the wife of Philologus. 3:28). Romans 16:24 is the same as Romans 16:20 b. continue in xyz.” This sounds very domestic to me. And while claiming that authenteō can have a positive meaning, he does not give a single example where this is the case. Paul uses “labour/labourer” words for ministry and ministers in a few of his letters. Moore is a pastor at Roots Covenant Church in St Paul, Minnesota. There is something in all of us that wants to see our names preserved. Paul's greetings in Romans 16. Hermes Romans 16:14 Greet also the church that meets at their house. The Roman soldiers laid hold of a passing stranger whom they compelled to bear the cross to Calvary. While that is true, I have always wondered why Genesis 3:17 mentions Adam listening to the voice of his wife since it is not mentioned that she said anything. Also say hello to the church that meets in their house. Aquila Romans 16:3-5a, Say hello to Prisca and Aquila, my coworkers in Christ Jesus, who risked their own necks for my life. 11:17 is indeed the beginning of a new section. Tryphena of Rome is a Christian woman mentioned in Romans 16:12 of the Bible ("Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord." 11:17, 18, 20, 33, 34. The final name is Erastus, director of public works in the city of Corinth. 16:7 The name Junia is a woman’s name. God and Jesus Christ rightfully have full power and absolute authority (authentia); husbands do not have this kind of power or authority. Most of the names in this chapter are members of the Roman church that Paul is sending greetings to. (Romans 16:1-2 NIV), The whole church can be grateful to this woman for her faithfulness. Next, we get another band of hard-working ladies, and also another hidden romantic story, Verses 12-13: Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa [I have always enjoyed those names!] ... Twenty-nine people are mentioned in Romans 16:1-16, including ten women, seven of whom are described in terms of their ministries. 11Greet Herodion, my relative. They never envisaged retiring and enjoying themselves for the remaining years of their lives. 3:8,12. I’ve had a busy day and need to take a breather. Several books and papers discuss whether Romans 16 was meant for Rome or for Ephesus. These women, most likely sisters or even twins, ministered “in the Lord.” Despite the senses of daintiness and of luxurious living that the etymology of their names conveys, these women were hard workers. Nympha is mentioned as having a church that meets in her house, but some insist she was not a church leader. Evidently, Saul of Tarsus moved in with them and soon led them to Christ. CEB. So he asks that these people and the various households be greeted. God bless you. The most famous Narcissus we know in Roman history was a former slave who became the personal secretary of the Emperor Claudius. CEB. Here is a list of over a dozen early and medieval scholars who took Junia’s name in Romans 16:7 to be feminine. Women in Romans 16 Romans 16 is a significant chapter for the study of women in the early church. Somewhere along the line they shared a prison term with him. Paul begins this section and the previous one (1 Cor. See here.). c. Amplias: There is a tomb dating from the late first or early second century in the earliest Christian catacomb of Rome which bears the name AMPLIAS. They say, "If you have this mark, then you really are a Christian." 2. Or perhaps they are the hosts and leaders of three different house churches in Rome. Which are in the Lord - This might intimate that some of this family were not Christians; those only of that family that were converted to the Lord being saluted. Just as many hues and colors are blended together to create a beautiful design, so many types of service are needed to present and reveal the wonderful love of God! I cannot see that 1 Cor. Prisca’s name is listed before her husband’s in four of the six times their names are mentioned in the New Testament. I enjoyed this movie a lot. Mary the wife of Clopas (John 19:25; note that in this verse three of the four women mentioned had the name "Mary"). Say hello to Apelles, who is tried and true in Christ. Romans 16:6. 1:6). 2I ask you to receive her in the Lord in a way worthy of the saints and to give her any help she may need from you, for she has been a great help to many people, including me. There seems to be little doubt that Rufus, along with his brother Alexander, mentioned in the Gospel of Mark, were the sons of Simon of Cyrene. I only wish I’d had this 50 odd years ago when as a teenager I was being fed the “women silent in the church” line, which I always had trouble accepting! See Mark 15:21. I think “domineer” is a reasonable translation of authentein. Greet Mary, who worked very hard for you. Nereus Romans 16:15 Become a Patron! Romans 16:16 NIV. She was not behaving badly towards women, but to a man, probably her husband, so there’s no reason to mention women. Phoebe was a minister in Cenchrea, a port town of Corinth. 11 refers to ministry when the church is assembled, but perhaps Paul’s concern is conceptual rather than practical in these verses. Paul is very careful to remember these women and men who had the gift of helps. 3:8,12. But here in Romans 16 is a list of names of men and women who never knew that they were going to be famous. Only the wealthiest people and scholars had personal access to the written scriptures, that is, the Old Testament. May God continue to bless you in your blog-ministry, and let your heart be warmed often! After Mary, Paul mentions the couple Andronicus and Junia. I would say there is zero evidence of authentein referring to a normal, or healthy, exercise of authority around the first-third centuries. Philologus Romans 16:15 The first fruits of Achaia. 11:18 and 22 for the whole church at Corinth. What is especially interesting, however, is that seven of the ten women are described in terms of their ministry (Phoebe, Prisca, Mary, Junia, Tryphena, Tryphosa, Persis). the Joanna mentioned as a wealthy patron and follower of Jesus in Luke 8:3 and 24:10 may be identical to Junia, with Joanna being her Aramaic name and Junia its Greek/Latin equivalent.3 Whatever her identity, Paul’s deference to her authority illustrates the utmost respect on his part. Thank you so much for helping with that!  Paul’s comment that Rufus’s mother was “a mother to me” may be in reference to her ministry to Paul and not just their relationship. Paul decides to send greetings from all those people who were with him in Corinth. Tertius is writing down the letter, and the others are gathered around listening to Paul as he dictates, and profiting much from the writing of these great truths. It’s interesting to speculate what they might have been, but calling it “teaching” is a huge stretch. I have been reading some of your articles on authentein, and I can see that there is a fair amount of evidence to suggest that it was not a normal exercise of authority. Even the father of our country felt the urge to gain a kind of immortality by carving his name on the rock. Felt the urge to gain prestige, right to direct their lives 24 verses there are 24 of... ; but the number of persons mentioned are much more preaching on Romans –... 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